EFFICIENT ENERGY USE

"ESSENTIAL DATA FOR A HIGH PERFORMANCE ENERGY INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO"

EEU SYSTEMS: SUPPLY SOURCE & DEMAND SECTOR SUMMARY EXAMPLE: USA

OVERVIEW

Energy Use Stats USA | World (2011)

Stat USA World
Total Energy Use (PWh SI) 25.5 153.3
Population (x108) 3.12 69.7
Energy Use Per Capita (x104 kWh SI) 8.17 2.20
Net Energy Imports (negative = net export) 20.9% (3.0%)
CO2 Emissions (Mt SI) 5,287 33,615

Energy Use by Supply Source & Demand Sector: USA

Supply % of Source Demand % of Sector
*1 – RC: Residential Commercial only
Petroleum
37.4%
  • 71% Transportation
  • 23% Industry
  • 5% Buildings *1
  • 1% Electricity
Electricity
40%
  • 1% Petroleum
  • 17% Natural Gas
  • 52% Coal
  • 21% Nuclear
  • 9% Renewables
Natural Gas
24.0%
  • 3% Transportation
  • 34% Industry
  • 34% Buildings *1
  • 29% Electricity
Transportation
29%
  • 95% Petroleum
  • 2% Natural Gas
  • 3% Renewables
Coal
22.7%
  • 8% Industry
  • 1% Buildings *1
  • 91% Electricity
Industry
21%
  • 41% Petroleum
  • 39% Natural Gas
  • 9% Coal
  • 11% Renewables
Nuclear
8.6%
  • 100% Electricity
Residential
Commercial
10%
  • 17% Petroleum
  • 81% Natural Gas
  • 1% Coal
  • 1% Renewables
Renewables1
3.4%
Renewables2
3.9%
  • 11% Transportation
  • 28% Industry
  • 10% Buildings *1
  • 51% Electricity

Energy Audit Overview

All analyses of EEU relationships and opportunities begins with an energy audit of supply and demand.

The USA as one of the largest users of energy in the world will be used as an example of how to identify EEU relationships and opportunities from an energy audit.

EU data is provided by USEIA energy stats publications from 2007-2012.

Energy demand is local. Non-renewable energy supply is dominantly non-local. Renewable energy supply is dominantly local.

EU of a particular jurisdiction is strongly related to the spatial configuration and mix of RCIT land use activities.

The EEU consequences of RCIT land use configurations will not be examined here. Those consequences and scenarios have been studied under contract to municipal, provincial, and federal governments.

Energy Audit Baseline Data

This is an example of the type of data needed to establish a baseline of total EU by supply and demand for any jurisdiction – country, state, province, municipality, city, town…

Some major immediate benefits of the collection and analysis of this baseline data are:

  • Comparisons of jurisdictions to identify opportunities for greater EEU
  • Evaluation of the potential for import reductions
  • Examination of the possibilities for source & demand supply substitutions based on LCC
  • Analysis of the cost benefits of self-sufficiency
  • Estimates of the magnitude of healthcare & environmental protection cost reductions
  •  Insights into new businesses, industries, jobs

This macro audit data is required for the micro data audit of the energy supply & distribution systems, and RCIT demand sectors that follows.

Most jurisdictions track energy usage using the aforementioned four broad sectors: RCIT.

Some data sources combine Residential Commercial (RC) usage into one sector: Buildings.

RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE

Residential Sector EU: USA

Sector Description Major Uses
Residential Buildings:
• private living quarters
  • 32% Space Heating
  • 13% Water Heating
  • 12% Lighting
  • 11% Air Conditioning
  • 8% Refrigeration
  • 5% Electronics
  • 5% Wet-Clean:
    mostly clothes dryers

Residential Energy Audit

This is the type of information derived from an energy audit in the residential sector.
The residential sector uses ???% of the total.

COMMERCIAL ENERGY USE

Commercial Sector EU: USA

Sector Description Major Uses
Commercial Buildings:
• service providing facilities & equipment
Occupants:
• businesses not including industry
  • 25% Lighting
  • 13% Space Heating
  • 11% Air Conditioning
  • 6% Refrigeration
  • 6% Water Heating
  • 6% Ventilation
  • 6% Electronics

Commercial Energy Audit

This is the type of information derived from an energy audit in the commercial sector.
The commercial sector uses ???% of the total.

INDUSTRIAL ENERGY USE

Industrial Sector EU: USA.

Sector Description Major Uses
Industrial Facilities & Equipment:
• producing & processing goods
  • 22% Chemical Production
  • 16% Petroleum Refining
  • 14% Metal Smelting & Refining

Industrial Energy Audit

This is the type of information derived from an energy audit in the industrial sector.
The industrial sector uses ???% of the total.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY USE

Transportation Sector EU: USA

Sector Description Major Uses
Transportation Vehicles:
• transport people & goods
• by ground, water & air
  • 61% Gasoline Fuel
  • 21% Diesel Fuel
  • 12% Aviation Fuel

Transportation Energy Audit

This is the type of information derived from an energy audit in the transportation sector.
The transportation sector uses ???% of the total.

ENERGY SUPPLY & DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

New Content Coming Soon

EEU SYSTEMS: IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF AN ENERGY AUDIT

OVERVIEW

The energy audit is the baseline for all EEU investment strategies.

All audits of fuel supply and energy demand for all systems follow the same steps:

  1. Identify all of the independent FBU’s of each RCIT sector that are part of the system being audited.
  2. Each FBU receives the fuel bills – electricity, natural gas, oil: homes in the residential sector, buildings in the commercial sector, cars in the transportation sector, manufacturers in the industrial sector.
  3. From the bills for each FBU, collect use and cost data for all fuel sources.
  4. Identify all of the end use FDU’s of each FBU: space heating, air conditioning, water heating, appliances, lighting, electronics, etc.
  5. Calculate the energy demand of each FDU.
  6. Identify the fuel source and efficiency for each FDU: calculate the fuel demand for each FDU.
  7. Total the demand of all FDU’s by fuel type to generate the FBU fuel demand totals.
  8. Compare these totals with the FBU fuel bills.
  9. Calibrate the FDU calculations to match the utility bills of the FBU.
  10. Total all of the utility bills of all of the FBU’s of the system being audited.
  11. Total all of the energy and fuel use calculations for all of the FBU’s included in the audit.
  12. Calibrate the FDU calculations again to match the utility bill totals.
  13. Test the generated supply and demand model against any available independent data sources for the system being audited.
  14. Use the system supply and demand model to identify the best EEU investment options based on LCC.

Following, for each RCIT sector, typical generic FBU’s and associated composite FDU’s are identified.

Energy use and efficiency data must be determined for each FDU to be able to calculate the fuel usage contribution of each FDU.

Technological improvements in FDU’s that reduce fuel usage are one way to improve the EEU of any system. FDU synergies are another.

Operational changes are usually the best investment to reduce the fuel bills of any system. This includes automation and fuel source substitution.

All systems are some combination of FBU’s from the RCIT energy demand sectors.

RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE PARAMETERS

Residential Sector FBU’s & FDU’s

FBU Calibration FDU
Construction:
• Existing
• New
Data Sources that scale
FBU & FDU demand by:
• Energy per Unit Area
  • Space Heating
  • Water Heating
  • Lighting
  • Air Conditioning
  • Refrigeration
  • Electronics
  • Wet-Clean:
    mostly clothes dryers
  • Misc Appliances
  • Misc Electric
Categories:
Single Family:

• Detached
• Attached
Apartments:
• 2-4 Units
• 5+ Units
Mobile

Residential Energy Audit

This is the type of information required to perform an energy audit in the residential sector.

The baseline audit is used to develop an LCC based best ROI EEU implementation plan.

EEU base investments will be among the best returns in your portfolio.

The FBU’s are standard residential building categories used for energy surveys and audits.

FBU’s in the same building category usually have similar FDU profiles.

The FDU’s are composites that need to be separated by fuel type.

COMMERCIAL ENERGY USE PARAMETERS

Commercial Sector FBU’s & FDU’s

FBU Calibration FDU
Construction:
• Existing
• New
Data Sources that scale
FBU & FDU demand by:
• Energy per Unit Area
  • Lighting
  • Space Heating
  • Air Conditioning
  • Refrigeration
  • Water Heating
  • Ventilation
  • Electronics
  • Misc Appliances
  • Misc Electric
Categories:
Education
(7+)
Food Sales (3+)
Food Service (2+)
Health Care:
• Inpatient (2+)
• Outpatient (4+)
Lodging (8+)
Mercantile:
• Mall (5+)
Mall Retail (2+)
Office:
Industry (12+)
Public Assembly (10+)
Public Order & Safety (4+)
Religious Worship
Service (12+)
Warehouse & Storage (3+)
Other (7+)
Vacant

Commercial Energy Audit

This is the type of information required to perform an energy audit in the commercial sector.

The baseline audit is used to develop an LCC based best ROI EEU implementation plan.

EEU based investments will be among the best returns in your portfolio.

The FBU’s are standard commercial building categories used for energy surveys and audits.

There are at least 81+ subcategories; the numbers after each building category are estimates of their number of subcategories.

FBU’s in the same building category usually have similar FDU profiles.

The FDU’s are composites that need to be separated by fuel type.

INDUSTRIAL ENERGY USE PARAMETERS

Industrial Sector FBU’s & FDU’s

FBU Calibration FDU
*1 – Feedstock: fuels used as chemicals converted directly into product inputs
*2 – Process: fuels used directly for their energy in manufacturing
Construction:
• Existing
• New
Data Sources that scale
FBU & FDU demand by:
• Energy per $VA
• Energy per Employee
• Energy per Unit Area
• Employees per $VA
• Employees per Unit Area
  • Feedstock *1
  • Process *2
  • Space Heating
  • Water Heating
  • Air Conditioning
  • Lighting
  • Refrigeration
  • Ventilation
  • Electronics
  • Misc Appliances
  • Misc Electric
Categories:
Light Industry:
• Apparel
• Optical Equipment
• Printing
Medium Industry:
• Food
• Leather
• Lumber & Wood
• Paint
• Plastics
• Rubber
• Textiles
Mining & Metals:
• Clay & Stone
• Ferrous
• Non-Ferrous
• Glass
Paper & Chemicals:
• Chemicals
• Fertilizer
• Paper & Related
Synthetics:
• Asphalt, Other Mixes
• Coatings
• Plastics, Other Synthetics

Industrial Energy Audit

This is the type of information required to perform an energy audit in the industrial sector.

The baseline audit is used to develop an LCC based best ROI EEU implementation plan.

EEU based investments will be among the best returns in your portfolio.

The FBU’s are industrial class composites based on SIC codes.

The FDU’s are composites that need to be separated by fuel type.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY USE PARAMETERS

Transportation Sector FBU’s & FDU’s

FBU Calibration FDU *1
*1 – Fuels: gasoline, diesel, electricity
Vehicles:
• Existing
• New
Data Sources that scale
FBU & FDU demand by:
• Modal Split
• Content: People, Goods
• Energy Demand:
   by Distance & Content
• Daily Trips by Content
• Trip Length
• Annual Distance per Trip
• Modal Split
• Modal Energy Demand
• Modal Fuel Demand
• Totals by Fuel Type
  • Auto
  • Bus
  • Rail
  • Truck
  • Air
  • Ship
Categories:
Personal:
• Work
• Shop
• Recreation
• Other
Business (CI):
• Delivery
• Service
• Other

Transportation Energy Audit

This is the type of information required to perform an energy audit in the transportation sector.

The baseline audit is used to develop an LCC based best ROI EEU implementation plan.

EEU base investments will be among the best returns in your portfolio.

The FBU’s are standard trip purposes and modes used in energy surveys and audits.

Major determinants of FBU’s are the travel patterns for work, shopping, recreation, delivery, and service that are dependent on the relative locations of buildings (RC), business, and industry. These spatial land use patterns are strongly regionally dependent.

An interesting statistic: about 70%  of all travel in most regions of Canada and the USA is personal. The remaining 30% is non-personal travel for commerce by business and industry.

90% of personal transportation is less than 50 miles per day.

  • Why do we need an electric car with a range of 200+ miles per charge to service this need?
  • Isn’t it time to change our operating paradigm and demand that this massive urban energy use be serviced by electric cars?
  • For personal trips of 100+ miles why not use alternate transportation rather than personal vehicles: rentals, mass transit…?

The FDU’s are composites that need to be separated by fuel type. The major transportation fuels are gasoline, diesel, and electricity.

SOURCES FOR ENERGY AUDIT MODEL CALIBRATION

Energy Audit References

Energy Audit Resources

These are some of the resources used for building and calibrating an RCIT energy use model, and using that model to identify a hierarchy of the best ROI EEU investment opportunities.

The references given are mainly American. As one of the two largest energy users in the world, the USA is also one of the largest sources of detailed energy use information in the world.

When local information is insufficient for the jurisdiction being analyzed, the US information which is often more detailed and complete can be statistically extrapolated and interpreted to help build a localized model of energy use and EEU investment opportunities.

Some of the best end use energy technologies and fuel consumption references come from the sources in this table.

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